Authors Recommendation List of Species Top page

◎Of the Asian butterflies, Volume 2 in this series contains 380 species in 100 genera, of which 63 genera were not covered in Volume 1.

◎For about 60% of the butterflies included in Volume 2, the life histories of early stages are described for the first time.

◎Meandrusa payeni[Plate 67, 68, p. 356]: Along with the species immediately below, the early stages of this butterfly are indispensable for elucidating the taxonomic relationships in the Papilionidae. In 1987, Igarashi unveiled its early stages, which are very peculiar amongst the papilionid butterflies. (Igarashi)

◎Teinopalpus imperialis[Plate 70-73, p. 358]: Since the adult of this species was first recorded in 1843, its life history had remained unknown for 143 years. Igarashi started investigation of this species in 1963, and revealed its whole life history finally in 1986 in his eighth expedition. Both adult and larva of this species have peculiar behavioural habits. (Igarashi)

◎Amongst Eurema species, 9 are included. In particular, the subgeneric group consisting of the montane-forest-dwelling E. novapallida[Plate 82, p. 371], E. lacteola[Plate 83, p. 372], and E. hiurai (not shown in this volume) has some taxonomic problems, to which the descriptions of the former two species will shed some light. (Fukuda)

◎Aporia genestieri[Plate 96, p. 388]: This species has numerous differences from the related Japanese A. hippia in dietary habits, larval habits, and structures of the nest for hibernation. (Igarashi)

◎Euploea algea[Plate 111, p. 406]: For this widespread species, the larval morphology and habits reported in 1927 from Polynesia were not in accord with those reported from other regions, proposing some taxonomic problems. This volume shows evidence that specimens from the Palau Islands are the same as those reported previously from Polynesia, providing some help for their taxonomic revision in the future. (Fukuda)

◎Fern-feeding satyrids: In addition to the two species described in Vol. 1, Acrophtalmia leuce[Plate 120, p. 415]and Ragadia crisilda[Plate 121, p. 416]are included. They show local differences in larval dietary habits. (Fukuda)

◎Ypthima savara[Plate 124, p. 419]: Amongst Ypthima species, the larvae of formerly known species feed only on herbaceous species of the Gramineae, or on both herbaceous and bamboo species. This species, on the other hand, uses only bamboo species as its larval foodplants, and has notable features in its habits and morphology. (Fukuda)

◎Although the early stages of Athyma species are generally the same, A. kanwa[Plate 187, p. 478]and A. venata[Plate 188, p. 479]are remarkably different. (Igarashi)

◎Abrota ganga[Plate 196, p. 487]: Its taxonomic position was formerly unknown. The revealed early stages of this species have shown that it belongs to the Euthalia group. (Igarashi)

◎Lexias pardalis[Plate 197, p. 489]: The larval habit of this species, which is decribed in this volume, that an enemel-like substance is worn on the cranium is very unique, unknown from any other butterfly species. Neither origin nor role of this substance is still known, and waited for are studies in the future along with investigations in related species. (Fukuda)

◎Eulaceura osteria[Plate 210, p. 504]: The morpological features of its early stages indicate that its closest extant species are of the genus Chitoria. (Igarashi)

◎Thaleropis ionia[Plate 222, p. 517]: The behavioural and morphological features of its early stages indicate that it belongs to the Dilipa group. (Igarashi)

◎Sephisa chandra[Plate 226, p. 520]and S. princeps[Plate 227, p. 521]: The ova of these two species are not attached with their bottoms, but are laid only haphazardly. They almost lack the flat part on the bottom surface. (Igarashi)

◎Philiris harterti[Plate 255, p. 549]: Thanks to Mr. T. Suzuki's studies, the number of its larval instars has been confirmed to be seven, and also its exceptionally lengthy growth period has been revealed. It also shows many peculiar habits. (Igarashi)

◎Spindasis takanonis[Plate 292, p. 586]: In spite of detailed studies of its early stages by many predecessors, the origin of the honey-like substance secreted by the larva has been unknown. It has been inferred to be from some nectary near the posterior end of the larva's body. Thanks to Mr. Y. Torigoe's observation and photographing, it has been confirmed to be secreted from the anus. (Igarashi)

◎Fixsenia formosana[Plate 319, p. 614]: Its ova are laid in great numbers on the basal part of a larval foodplant tree. Females fly to the same spot one after another to add their ova, to make batches of great numbers. This kind of ova batch formation is unknown from any other butterfly. (Igarashi)

◎Charmion ficulnea[Plate 345, p. 640]: This species has been revealed to have different larval foodplants and behavioural habits from those of the genus Celaenorrhinus. Although both genera are closely related, they are definitely not congeneric. (Igarashi)

◎Darpa pteria[Plate 347, p. 641]and Mooreana triconeura[Plate 352, p. 646]: Their larvae have a peculiar nest-building habit. The larva cuts a part of a foodplant leaf in the shape of an ellipse, and folds it to make a sandwich-like nest. When doing so, the larva skilfully retains the leaf veins undamaged in order not to wither the leaf piece cut and folded. (Igarashi)

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